Estelas Medievais do Castro do Jarmelo (Guarda)
[Resumo proveniente da fonte]
This paper brings to knowledge a set of twelve discoid stelae, cut in local granite, from the three medieval churches of the archaeological site of Jarmelo (Guarda). Rising up 942 meters, this site is what is called in Geology an Ilseberg, For this reason, it have a large visual field that reach Guarda, Pinhel, Figueira de Castelo Rodrigo, Almeida, Castelo Bom, Castelo Mendo, Sabugal, and Spanish borders territories. Jarmelo was a medieval town, and a medieval county, that over the centuries came suffering of a progressive depopulation phenomenon. Nowadays, it does not have any habitant and the county was divided between the county of Guarda and the county of Pinhel, in the end of 19º century. Although this situation, two (São Pedro and São Miguel), of the three, churches with medieval pass still remain erected. However, both churches were targeted for refurbishments over the centuries and nowadays they do not show medieval traces. They continue to be the center of Christian cult for the population who live on the surrounding villages, and still use the two cemeteries for burials. The third church isn’t possible to recognize nowadays, only remains the place name. As previously has been said, there are three churches whit a medieval past. São Pedro church, São Miguel church and Santa Maria church appear in medieval documents since the first half of the thirteenth century. In what concern of the discoid stelae, to study this group it is necessary understand that this set is subdivided in to three, belongs each one to a different church. In this case the group that belongs to the São Pedro Church is located at the cemetery of this church. It is composing by ten discoid stelae, unfortunately anyone is in situ. Near the São Miguel church, on a contemporary platform, is located a discoid stele. The last one, that belonging to Santa Maria church, was collected in 1951 from a modern wall and currently it is located on the Museum of Guarda. The iconography present in the stelae is majority compose by the Greek Cross, with some variations, and in minority by geometric and astral motives. The stele that belongs to the Santa Maria Church shows a curious iconography on the reverse face. It was composing by a half moon/ crescent in low relief. During this investigation it was not founded any stele with the same iconography. This funerary ritual of Late Medieval Age is very well known in Guarda county. The total numbers of those manifestations exceeds a hundred, and exist in towns and villages like Guarda, Pinhel, Mêda, Sabugal or Foz Côa. However, the fact of majority of them, like the case of Jarmelo, haven’t archaeological context, it decrease the changes of a better knowledge. Nevertheless, in the case of medieval village of Jarmelo those manifestation increase the knowledge of the past on this site, his funerary rituals and mostly it testify a permanent medieval occupation, which is the propose of the master investigation of the author. Keywords: Jamelo, discoid stelae, medieval.