Coleção António/Delmira Maçãs. O Caso das Necrópoles de São Salvador de Aramenha: cerâmica comum. Dados preliminares
[Resumo proveniente da fonte]
The present work materializes an updated approach to the universe composed by the collection of common pottery of António and Delmira Maçãs, lodged at the National Museum of Archaeology, in Lisbon, Portugal. Although this collection has been partially and previously studied by Josefa Neves (Neves, 1972), the present study represents a more recent and comprehensive record of the collection. Therefore, our study is primarily focused on the pieces that have not been reported so far, and on the pieces that after treatment and restoration, presented a surface treatment dissimilar to the one described in 1972; (being the pitcher No. 2011-10-58 (Neves, J. C., 1972, panel V, No. 37) and pots No. 2011-10-63 (Neves, J. C. 1972, panel IV, No. 26) and 2011-10-96 (Neves, J. C., 1972, panel IV, No. 25), just some examples). The analysis of the collection of common ware of António and Delmira Maçãs, is integrated in a broader study that comprehends the analysis of the common pottery found at the roman city of Ammaia, in São Salvador da Aramenha, Portugal. The interest in studying the António and Delmira Maçãs collection arose as a consequence of the archaeological excavations performed in 1995, and of the musealization process triggered in 2001, by the reconstruction of Casa de Deão, Ammaia (Pereira, 2009). This long process of excavation, study and restoration as also benefited from the application of geophysical methods through the development of research studies coordinated by Professors Frank Vermeulen and Cristina Corsi, between the years of 2005 and 2011 (Vermeulen, et al., 2005; Corsi & Vermeulen, 2007; Vermeulen & Taelman, 2010). The analysis of the common pottery of António and Delmira Maçãs collection emerges from the need of not omitting complete forms, and of comparing funeral and urban contexts from an archeometric point of view. This study started under the guidance of Professor Frank Vermeulen in 2010, and is presently under the supervision of Professor Carlos Soares Fabião, from the University of Lisbon and of Professor Filipe Themudo Barata, from the University of Évora. Even if the precise cartographic location of the materials has been lost with the flow of time, it is unanimous that this particular collection manifests close proximity to the Roman city of Ammaia, and fits in the context of the necropolis of this metropolis. Moreover, this collection is chronologically attributed to the first part of the Roman Empire, more specifically to the second half of the 1st century and beginning of the 2nd century, A.D. The sorting of the pieces found allowed us to perform an inventory of 97 items, which have been divided in 10 morphological categories, namely, pots (37); plates (23); ewers (16); bottles (8), bowls (4), jars (3) pitchers (2), lids (2), jugs (1) and bowls (1) (see Figure 1). The information about the manufacturing of the pieces began to be developed from the fragments exhumed from the intramural area of the city of Ammaia. The type of fabrics identified in the ceramic pieces of the António & Delmira Maçãs collection are similar to the fabrics found in the city of Ammaia, and will be opportunely reported once analysed by the Hercules Research Institute, of the University of Évora (Figure 14). Nevertheless, the different sorts of fabrics found were of 10 types, and were grouped according to a single letter code (A, B, C, D, E, F, H1, I, L e O), (Figure 2 & Table 2). Upon analysis of the pieces, we have observed that fabric E is the fabric mostly found among the dishes, little pots and jugs, but also, among the bowls and the pots. Moreover, the three first morphologies mentioned (dishes, little pots and jugs) are also the most frequent among the collection, with a representation of 79% (24% +37% +18% = 79%), indicating a preference not only for these particular shapes but also for the type of manufacture E (33%). The second type of manufacture most represented in the collection is fabric B (27%) present in dishes, pots, jars, pitchers, bottles and lids. This type of fabric is used among pieces with a great variety of shapes and morphologies, being however, less common among the bottles and lids. Manufacture O (12%) was identified in pots, bowls, little pots and pitchers and presents a much lower percentage of representation, when compared to manufactures E and B. The significance of the statistical results obtained stresses out, not only the more significant representation of manufactures E, B, O and C, but also the great variety of shapes adopted by each type of manufacture. In fact, four to six types of morphologies/shapes could be observed for each manufacture. After analysing the whole collection of ceramics under study, we could conclude easily that in the majority of cases, the technical features associated with the original surface treatment are preserved and visible only in small fractions of the outer walls and/or interior. The analysis of the entire universe of the António and Delmira Maçãs ceramic pieces, and particularly the analysis of the pieces that underwent treatment and restoration, document the presence of polishing and even paintings (vide annexes, nº 2011-10-58, -63 and -96). Thus, this suggests and strengthens the hypothesis that most of the pieces of the collection would have been originally submitted to surface treatment care, although this surface treatment was no longer visible in the ceramic records registered in 1972 (Neves, 1972). Additionally, the significance of the data obtained cannot omit the important role played by extensive diachronic methodologies experienced over a century. This case study is an example of how an interdisciplinary approach, can bring forward new results that were indications brought by archeometry and by the conservation and restoration techniques represents a considerable and very informative advance. Moreover, the analysis of this ceramic collection as a whole is a demonstration that the “whole” is necessarily more than the sum of the parts. In the context of ceramic culture, this case study highlights the importance of maintaining the good practice of questioning, and of having moderation in what concerns the extension of some quantifiable "certainties" and "truths". These results recall simultaneously the permanent challenge posed to the archaeological practice, both by the perishability of many materials, and by the classic teaching that: the absence of an archaeological record does not directly means inexistence. The relevant role performed by the museums acquires a dynamic and permanently renewed importance in the preservation, study and dissemination of collections that otherwise would be dispersed or irretrievably lost. In the Portuguese context, many are the thinkers who attribute the paternity of this philosophy to Leite de Vasconcelos. Interestingly, it is curious to note that the preservation of the António and Delmira Maçãs collection is also contemporaneous to the pioneering work of José Leite de Vasconcelos. The present work is also a demonstrative example that the cultural, generational and symbolic role played by the museums in the communities, regions and nations is of incalculable value. Thus, the authors of this research wish to thank the board of the National Archaeological Museum, as well as, to thank the inventory, conservation and restoration teams, for providing the opportunity to study such a collection, and for all the information given and collaborative work developed. Similarly, we are equally grateful to the Foundation and Museum of the city Ammaia whose collaboration and contribution is at the origin of this research. Keywords: common ware.
A coleção Maçãs é resultado da dinâmica desenvolvida entre José Leite de Vasconcelos e António Eusébio Benito Maçãs, bem como, do subsequente interesse de sua filha Delmira Maçãs. Volvidos 100 anos da primeira correspondência que documenta a angariação de recipientes cerâmicos de São Salvador de Aramenha para o então Museu Etnológico Português volta-se a analisar o acervo já estudado em 1972 por Josefa Neves. Este atualizado olhar tem como principal objetivo posteriormente integrar e comparar os atuais dados morfológicos e tecnológicos, com a informação dos fragmentos e recipientes de cerâmica comum exumados na área intramuros da cidade de Ammaia. O espólio de contexto urbano é resultante dos trabalhos arqueológicos iniciados na década de noventa e contrasta com o carácter fúnebre da coleção Maçãs. Antecedendo os contactos entre os dois contextos apresenta-se uma breve análise quantitativa das características técnicas e formais do acervo Maçãs. Com o intuito de posteriormente melhor avaliar o contributo integrador dos dois conjuntos refletese no momento em exclusivo sobre o significado da informação técnica e formal da coleção Maçãs. Agradecemos à direção do Museu Nacional de Arqueologia a possibilidade de estudar este acervo, alargando o reconhecimento às equipas de inventário e de conservação e restauro, a quem estamos gratos pelas informações prestadas e pelo trabalho desenvolvido. De igual modo, e por motivos em tudo idênticos estamos reconhecidos à Fundação e Museu cidade Ammaia cuja disponibilidade e contributo de toda a equipa está na origem de toda a investigação. Palavra chave: cerâmica comum.