Estudo Antropológico do Convento de Nossa Senhora do Carmo, Tavira
[Resumo proveniente da fonte]
During the conversion of the Igreja Conventual do Convento de Nossa Senhora do Carmo in Tavira, into a “Ciência Viva” Center a funerary space was identified, used consistently and systematically during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. This intensive use of space is attested by the abundance of articulated bones from oldest burials that were destroyed by more recent ones. There were identified thirteen graves and nine ossuaries. Between primary and secondary burials, at least fifty five individuals were present: twenty three non-adults and thirty two adults. The majority of the skeletons were buried directly in the ground, in low-deep graves. They were placed in a dorsal decubitus position with their arms mostly crossed at the chest and their legs stretched. The exhumed population varies in their age, ranging between intrauterine period and 50 years of age. Most of the children died during the first 3 years of life. The adults were more difficult to assess in terms of age and sex due to the lack of bones used to establish these parameters. Nevertheless it was possible to identify members of both sexes and young and mature adults. The adults, in most cases, were older than 20 or 29 years. It was observed the presence of five individuals among the 36 - 50 years and one with 21 to 35 years. Concerning sexual diagnosis, we have identified eight male adults and nine female adults. Regarding the height of the individuals, it was found that the values for male individuals range between 154 and 170 cm and female range between 150 and 170 cm. In regards to this population health, there were several cases of degenerative lesions in articular and nonarticular areas, some trauma cases, inflammatory episodes and a few physiological stress indicators, among other conditions. The bones areas afflicted by degenerative diseases exhibit, in most cases, micro porosity and bone growth in the spinal region and upper and lower limbs. In traumatic cases, some individuals have rib fractures with conspicuous calluses. It was identified a fused sacrum to the coccyx and ankyloses of the feet. Highlighting the presence of active inflammatory signals when death occurred, there is the deposition of new bone in irregular layers, which reaches femurs, tibias and humerus. As an example of physical stress lesions, it was detected an atlas with the vertebral arch fractured and with refurbished contours. This type of injury has been attributed to the act of carrying weight in the head in a systematic way. We also identified signs of nutritional deprivation and infections during the development of individuals, such as the linear hypoplasia in teeth. Regarding funeral rites, the use of shrouds was verified through the presence of several pins arranged along the body. Although most of the burials have been performed directly on the ground, the use of coffins and stretchers, often filled with lime, was also confirmed. Some of these coffins were ornamented. We also collected various items of clothing such as buttons, hooks and buckles, as well as scraps of leather from shoes. Keywords: Tavira, burial, skeletons.